When I first starting learning about Node.js I read lots of blog posts and tutorials filled with examples. After all, there weren't any published books or comprehensive guides at the time. With my primary JavaScript frame of reference being its use in the browser, one thing that always puzzled me early on is how Node could possibly prevent me from creating global variables. Consider the following contrived code example.

function sayHello(name) {
    console.log('Hello there ' + name);

exports.greet(name) {

If the above code were run in a browser I would have created a global function named sayHello and attached a function named greet to a global exports object. But that isn't what happens at all when using Node.

After some digging I came to learn that Node uses the CommonJS module pattern. Reading about CommonJS you'll learn that there's a magic exports variable available to your scripts, and anything attached to it is exposed to other code require'ing your script. That's all well and good and I understood the concept, but it didn't help me understand how it actually worked under the covers. How did it prevent functions like sayHello from becoming global and just where did that exports variable come from? So I resorted to digging through the Node source to find out what's really going on.

Fortunately, it didn't take long for me to stumble upon some code in src/node.js; It might have even been the first file I opened. On line 528 (Node version 0.6.18) you'll find the chunk of code shown below. Start reading at the compile function near the bottom. The first two things compile does is get the source of your script and then wrap it. Notice the NativeModule.wrap function is actually wrapping your entire source file in an anonymous function expression, exposing exports, require, module, __filename, and __dirname variables to your code. The wrapped source is then invoked in the compile function.

NativeModule.wrap = function(script) {
  return NativeModule.wrapper[0] + script + NativeModule.wrapper[1];

NativeModule.wrapper = [
  '(function (exports, require, module, __filename, __dirname) { ',

NativeModule.prototype.compile = function() {
  var source = NativeModule.getSource(this.id);
  source = NativeModule.wrap(source);

  var fn = runInThisContext(source, this.filename, true);
  fn(this.exports, NativeModule.require, this, this.filename);

  this.loaded = true;

The important part to take away from this is that Node does not run exactly what you've written in your source file; it runs a wrapped version of your source. This wrapped function expression is the tactic used to prevent your top level functions and variables from becoming global. It's also how your code gets access to the magic exports variable, among others.